COVID-19 Mutant Proteins

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Variants

Which mutations in SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus cause the higher transmissibility of novel virus variants of concern (VoC)? Our recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins help in the study of novel mutations and their effects.

In all RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, mutations occur frequently due to the high error rate of RNA polymerases, often without phenotypic impact. New variants of the virus (variant of interest VoI or variant of concern VoC) are said to occur when these mutations alter the virulence, transmissibility, or mortality of the virus.

Sequence and structure of the COVID-19 pathogen SARS-CoV-2 are well studied and described. Of particular interest with respect to diagnostics and drug development is the spike protein (S-protein) due to its role in the interaction with human host receptors. Since the beginning of the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in humans, the viruses acquired an increasing number of polymorphic nucleotide positions. The influence of these mutations on properties like transmissibility, virulence or immunogenicity is object of intensive investigation. 

Viral variants harboring the D614G spike mutation were rare at the onset of the pandemic but are now prevalent worldwide, attributed to increased transmissibility (Korber et al.). Three fast-spreading new variants have emerged within the last year: the alpha variant B.1.1.7 (Rambaud et al.), the beta variant B.1.351 (Tegally et al.), the gamma variant B.1.1.28 P.1 (Singh et al.), and the delta variant B.1.617.2 (Mlcochova et al.).

Omicron variant B.1.1.529, which first appeared in South Africa in November 2021 and now largely determines the pandemic activity in Europe, has evolved independently from the delta variant, according to phylogenetic studies, and has many mutations in the spike protein compared to the original SARS-CoV-2, including those with known phenotypic impact (increase in transmission, immune evasion, transmissibility), but also mutations whose significance is still unclear. (Saxena et al.)


A subset of the mutations identified in the RBD domain of the spike protein occurs in more than one strain, although those variants are believed to be independently evolved. These convergent mutations, specifically, the N501Y (shared between B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.1.529) and E484K (shared between B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.1.529, i.a.), are of high interest because they may be the cause of the increased transmissibility (Zahradnik et al.). Furthermore, the K417N and E484K polymorphisms reduce sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies (Greaney et al.), which may indicate reduced efficacy of the immune response after infection and vaccination, respectively.

Fig: 3D structure of Spike trimer embedded in lipid bilayer. 
Mutants are shown green and labelled accordingly. (Source: The Native Antigen)


To help you study and track the newly occuring variants of SARS-CoV-2, our suppliers make efforts to provide you with recombinant spike proteins of the newest known mutants the fastest possible.


Selected SARS-CoV-2 Mutant Recombinant Spike Proteins:


SARS-CoV-2 Variant Mutations Art.-Nr. Product Description

European Variant B1

D614G SCM-C19S1-G231H Signalchem SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein S1 (D614G)

Sino Biological SARS-CoV-2 S1 Spike Protein (D614G)-His, HPLC-verifiziert

Alpha Variant B.1.1.7

del69-70, del144, N501Y, A570D,

D614G, P681H,T716I, S982A, D1118H


GeneTex SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike (del69-70,del144,N501Y,A570D,D614G,...) (ECD) Protein, His tag (active), Unconjugated

NAC-REC31924-100 The Native Antigen SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.1.7) Stabilized Spike Glycoprotein, His-Strep-Tag (HEK293)
NAC-REC31946-100 The Native Antigen SARS-CoV-2 (N501Y Mutant) Spike Glycoprotein (S1) RBD, His-Tag (HEK293)
SIN-40592-V08H82 Sino Biological SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD(N501Y)-His Recombinant Protein

Beta Variant B.1.351 (501Y.V2)

L18F, D80A, D215G, del242-244, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V GTX136022-PRO GeneTex SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD (K417N, E484K, N501Y Mutant) protein, His tag (active), Unconjugated
GTX136095-PRO GeneTex SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 (L18F, D80A,..., R246I, K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G), His tag (active), Unconjugated
NAC-REC31963-100 The Native Antigen SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) Stabilized Spike Glycoprotein (Trimeric), His-Strep-Tag (HEK293)
NAC-REC31926-100 The Native Antigen SARS-CoV-2 (501.V2) Stabilized Spike Glycoprotein (Full-Length), His-Strep-Tag (HEK293
NAC-REC31945-100 The Native Antigen SARS-CoV-2 (501Y.V2: K417N, E484K, N501Y) Spike Glycoprotein (S1) RBD, His-Tag (HEK293)
BIV-P1645-50 BioVision Human CellExp(TM) SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (K417N, E484K, N501Y)
ELA-PKSV030319 Elabscience Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD (K417N,E484K,N501Y) (His Tag)
DBP-DPREC-021 Daresbury Proteins SARS-CoV-2 trimeric soluble full-length Spike protein, Beta variant, S protein, HEK293 cells
ABX160085 Abexxa SARS-CoV-2 S1 Protein RBD (Beta B.1.351 Variant), Unconjugated, Insect

Gamma Variant B.1.1.28 P1

L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y, T1027I, V1176F

GTX136091-PRO GeneTex SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike (ECD) Protein, P.1 / Gamma variant, His tag (active), Unconjugated
GTX136043-PRO GeneTex SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD Protein, P.1 / Gamma variant, His tag (active), Unconjugated
GTX136094-PRO GeneTex SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 Protein, P.1 / Gamma variant, His tag (active), Unconjugated
NAC-REC31944-100 The Native Antigen SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.1.28)Stabilized Spike Glycoprotein (Full-Length), His-Strep-Tag (HEK293)
NAC-REC31961-100 The Native Antigen SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.1.28: K417T, E484K, N501Y) Spike Glycoprotein (S1) RBD, His-Tag (HEK293)

Delta Variant B.1.617.2

L452R, T478K GTX136332-PRO

GeneTex SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD (L452R, T478K Mutant) protein, His tag, Unconjugated

NAC-REC31974-100 The Native Antigen SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.617.2, L452R, T478K) Spike Glycoprotein (S1) RBD, His-Tag (HEK293)
SIN-40589-V08H10 Sino Biological SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 Spike S1+S2 trimer Protein (ECD, His tag)
DBP-DPREC-024 Daresbury Proteins SARS-CoV-2 trimeric soluble full-length Spike protein, Delta variant, S protein, HEK293 cells
PRS-21-831 ProSci SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Delta Variant (B.1.617.2) Spike RBD (L452R, T478K) Recombinant Protein
ABX620012 Abbexxa SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Delta B.1.617.2 Variant), Unconjugated, Mammalian cells

Kappa Variant B.1.617.1

E484Q, L452R NAC-REC31971-100

The Native Antigen SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.617.1: E484Q, L452R) Spike Glycoprotein (S1) RBD, His-Tag (HEK293)

GTX136299-PRO GeneTex SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD (L452R, E484Q Mutant) protein, His tag (active), Unconjugated
SIN-40589-V08H11 Sino Biological SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.1 Spike S1+S2 trimer Protein (ECD, His tag)

Omicron Variant B.1.1.529

A67V, H69del, V70del, T95I, G142D, V143del, Y144del, Y145del, N211del, L212I, ins214EPE, G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H, T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H, N764K, D796Y, N856K, Q954 GTX136716-PRO SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD Protein, B.1.1.529 / Omicron variant, His tag, Unconjugated
SIN-40592-V08H121 Sino Biological SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Spike RBD Protein (His Tag)
SIN-40591-V08H41 Sino Biological SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Spike S1 Protein (His Tag)
SIN-40589-V08H26 Sino Biological SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) S1+S2 trimer Protein ( ECD, His Tag)
SCM-C19S1-G231OH Signalchem 2019-nCoV Spike protein S1 (Omicron)
SCM-C19SD-G231OH SignalChem 2019-nCoV Spike protein RBD (Omicron)
MCE-HY-P74443 MedchemExpress SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein (Omicron, B.1.1.529, His)
MCE-HY-P74444 MedchemExpress SARS-CoV-2 S Protein (Omicron, B.1.1.529, His)
MCE-HY-P74445 MedchemExpress SARS-CoV-2 S1 Protein (Omicron, B.1.1.529, His)
MCE-HY-P74447 MedchemExpress SARS-CoV-2 S Protein RBD (Omicron, B.1.1.529, His)


Y453F SIN-40592-V08H80 Sino Biological SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD(Y453F)-His rekombinantes Protein

B.1.141 / B1.258

N439K SIN-40592-V08H14 Sino Biological SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike RBD(N439K)-His rekombinantes Protein


From System Biosciences, Lentivector Packaging Mixes are available, pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike protein in several variants, including the beta variant B.1.351 (K417N, E484K, N501Y, and D614G).

Further SARS-CoV-2 mutant spike proteins are in development at several of our suppliers and will soon be available. If you are looking for a specific mutation, which is not yet available in our web store, please feel free to contact us and we will do our best to find the right protein for you.




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